The knee joint is one of the largest, strongest and most important joints in the human body. The knee joins the thigh bone (femur) and the shin bone (tibia). A small, thin and long bone that runs along the tibia (fibula) and the kneecap (patella) are the other bones that sum up to make the knee joint. Bone surfaces of the knee are covered with smooth surface (cartilage). Ligaments are elastic ropes required to provide stability to the knee by joining the knee bones. Meniscus is a two, cushion like structures inside the knee joint, needed for stability, shock absorption and nutrition of the joint.
Knee joint helps in mobility and rotating movement. It acts as a hinge and allows the lower leg and foot to move back and forth flexibly while walking, bending and sitting. It enables great stability while standing up.
As the knee joint is a weight bearing joint, it is prone to many injuries and diseases. However, knee joint problems can be prevented. The most common knee injuries are:
A few knee diseases are:
The knee joint is fragile and vulnerable to damage. Most of the injuries that occur are, while playing sports like cricket, baseball, football etc. Moreover, such injuries are also common during lifestyle injuries like two wheeler accident, slip from stairs etc. A sudden fall or twist in the knee joint can damage and injure the knee.
When knee joint is injured, the following symptoms are experienced.
Minor Injury: In case of a mild tear in the ligament, slight meniscus tear-strengthening exercises are performed to treat the injury.
In case of major injuries like torn meniscus, torn or damaged ACL or PCL, swollen lining of the joint, a fracture in the knee bone etc, knee arthroscopy surgery is performed.
Knee Arthroscopy Surgery is a minimal invasive surgery in which the doctor makes a small incision through the skin to have a clear view of the knee joint. A small camera called the Arthroscope is inserted. The camera displays pictures on the monitor which helps the surgeon perform the surgery.
In sports, as people need to recover fast, most of the joint related sports injuries are treated by performing the knee arthroscopy surgery. Faster recovery with better results is observed in this surgery when compared to other open surgeries.
Follow the RICE protocol to relieve knee pain.
Knee ligament tear is very common injury amongst sports persons and active population after twisting. It leads to ACL, PCL and Multi-ligament injuries.
- Sign and symptoms- Initial: Swelling | Painful movements | Inability to bear weight on affected limb.
- Prospective: Feel fear of falling | Difficulty in climbing stairs | Lack of confidence in knee | atrophy (thinning) of thigh muscles.
- Treatment- In cases of Partial tear, treatment with exercises and precautions & in cases of high grade tears Arthroscopic Surgical Reconstruction is mandatory.
Special at SportsMed - World's most reliable knee assessment system KT-1000- Most Advanced HD Endovision System, internationally trained surgical team, Specific Surgical planning for Sports person/Female Athletes/ Adolescent sports injuries/ Multiligament injuries, Proper post treatment care. For Stiff Knee and Loose Body For stiff knee, Arthroscopic Adheseolysis is the minimal invasive day care procedure to treat stiff knee and for removal of any loose piece in the knee, loose body removal is the solution.
Osteoarthritisis a degenerative joint disease caused due to aging. It is a chronic disorder that damages the tissues and cartilage surrounding the joint. This disease mostly affects the older people.
Symptoms of degenerative arthritis are:
The main aim of providing treatment for osteoarthritis knee is to relieve the person from pain and improve mobility.
Stem cell therapy is one of the recent advances in the treatment of osteoarthritis knee. The precursor stem cells can be obtained either from the blood, fat cells, bone marrow and many autogenous sources.
Injecting these cells inside the joint of an osteoarthritis knee and also in the area of the sports injury can cure mild to moderate disease.
Tiger Woods, an American professional golfer, underwent many knee surgeries during the year 2002 to 2008, including surgery on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and a reconstructive surgery on the ACL in his left knee.
Saina Nehwal, an Indian badminton player underwent a knee surgery last year (2016) as she fractured her infra patellar spur and suffered severe anterior knee pain.
Mohammed Shami Ahmed, an Indian cricketer suffered a tear in the left knee during one of the tournaments in the year 2015 and underwent an arthroscopic corrective knee surgery.